By Larry Romanoff, March 31, 2023
Biological Weapons Experiments
The US Military’s Surgeon-General’s Report
Nuclear Radiation Experiments
Dugway Proving Ground – Dead Sheep and Soviet Trickery
Lyme Disease and Plum Island
The West Nile Virus
The US Declares War on its own Military
Above: The crew of a ‘Project SHAD’ dispersal mission. SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense) was part of the larger ‘Project 112’, which in the 1960s tested potential chemical and biological warfare threats on land and sea. Early experiments involved two Liberty ships, but expanded to include submarines, barges, tugs and aircraft for airborne dispersal of nerve agents, tularamia, anthrax, parrot fever, Q fever, botulism and Rocky Moutain spotted fever, usually laced with radioactive particles for tracing. The tests used thousands of servicemembers as guinea pigs.Source: Here and Here
Covert nuclear, biological and chemical experiments on the American public are not new. The US government and military have a history of nearly 100 years of performing illegal, unethical and immoral experiments on live subjects at home. Countless millions of US civilians have been exposed to astonishing procedures and pathogens. According to a US Congressional investigation, by the late 1970s “at least 500,000 people were used as subjects in radiation, biological and chemical experiments sponsored by the US Federal Government on its own citizens”. However, as with all US Congressional Investigations, the content was severely whitewashed, with the actual count of victimised Americans being almost certainly in the tens of millions.
In May of 2009, James Corbett wrote an article titled “Governments and Biowarfare: A Brief History”, in which he stated: “The American government’s approach to biowarfare is notable for its unabashed use of unwitting American citizens as guinea pigs in biological weapons research. The very people who helped establish the U.S. biological weapons programs openly bragged about their experiments on unwitting human test subjects. And there is no shortage of documentation proving that governments have used biological agents against their own citizens in bioterror false flag operations. It is no coincidence that two of the most well-known and devastating biological releases this decade have traced back to Fort Detrick (the home of the U.S. biological weapons research program since the 1950s and the current home of USAMRIID) and Porton Down (Fort Detrick’s British equivalent). UK foot and mouth disease, and US anthrax scare.”
These pages contain only a brief summary of the litany of illegal and immoral human experimentation carried out the by the US government and its various agencies, experiments that are by all accounts still continued today. The US government hypocritically claims the high moral ground in the area of human rights, but no nation, not even the worst of the colonial powers, has ever displayed such a consistent, despicable and utter disregard for human life. The content of this series of books begins with very unpleasant details of US government atrocities, and it becomes worse as we progress through the content. Even today, years after writing some of these sections, I find it difficult to continue reading the entire content at one sitting. The atrocities are simply too grotesque to contemplate.
Before proceeding, I would make a few initial comments. The first is that comprehensive information on this large topic is quite difficult to access. Many official documents have been destroyed, with few others unclassified or otherwise available and, while some information is available in the public realm, it is scattered and often lacking useful detail. In particular, most websites provide only a small amount of information, often omitting the most serious and damaging events or experiments, while often attempting to “soften” the information by linking American atrocities to something imaginary Germany did (or might have done, or could have done, or would have liked to have done …) Also, in many cases, including some of the US mass media websites, viewers receive a notice that “This content is not available in your area”, or “You are not authorized to access this page”. I was disappointed to see that ahrp.org was especially useless except in a few isolated instances, providing only a few descriptive words on major atrocities. Another major disappointment is that websites we tend to trust, often prove untrustworthy, in particular by glossing over or trivialising major atrocities and often by disparaging authors who attempt to expose these. Andrew Goliszek wrote a book titled “In the Name of Science”, in which he exposes many of these human experiments and atrocities. His book is available for purchase, and limited previews are available on archive.org. In this context, I was very disappointed that Salon magazine chose to trash this whistle-blower and trivialise the insane medical experiments performed on Americans. From their article: “Unfortunately, Goliszek is an aggravatingly overheated writer, and as an investigator he can be lazy, too often relying on dubious sources and presenting only one side of the story. He is also a poor analyst of the facts he presents. [H]e skips from scientific disgrace to scientific disgrace with the glee of a freak-show emcee.” Often, the National Geographic, the Smithsonian, and others similar, seem to do something similar, with perhaps less personal smear but with the same intent and result.
I stated earlier that America’s human rights calculus excludes any atrocities committed outside its own borders and focuses only on what happens at home. That’s mostly true today, but it wasn’t always like this. In fact, all of the strident and self-righteous moralising about human rights emanating from the US today is a relatively recent development that began only in the late 1970s and 1980s. Prior to that time, the CIA, every branch of the US military, many Departments of the US government, most prominent American hospitals and educational institutions, and even UN agencies like the WHO, were all very busy committing countless atrocities against the domestic US population. It was only after evidence of many of these events escaped confinement and became public knowledge that the US relocated its human-rights atrocities offshore. The increasing public outcries and dangers of civil uprising forced the US to terminate or relocate these activities and, having made this effort to clean up the mess at home, the propaganda machine worked overtime to distract the American public and deflect attention from these domestic crimes by focusing on real or imagined violations abroad. It was only at this point that the Americans began preaching their newly-obtained sanctity by condemning other nations for what were much smaller transgressions than those practiced at home for so long.
For at least the past 75 years, the US government waged a war against its own citizens, a reprehensible history of illegal, unethical and immoral experiments exposing countless millions of US civilians to deadly procedures and pathogens. The US government initiated extensive programs of human experimentation that created an almost unbelievable litany of domestic human rights violations and atrocities against the American population, countless unethical experiments illegally performed on its own citizens. A great many of these were conducted against the most helpless victims in society – children, the elderly, hospital patients, prisoners. BBC Radio 4 did a long series of podcasts on these experiments, the series titled “Hotel Anthrax” I am providing the link here, but the broadcasts have been archived and the pages don’t always load.
Few Americans seem aware of their government’s programs of human experimentation, an unconscionable litany of atrocities performed by the CIA and military on an innocent and uninformed population, always without consent and most often with tragic results.These included extensive programs of experiments in mind-control, interrogation-torture, deliberate infection with deadly or debilitating diseases, exposure to severe radioactivity and every manner of biological, bacteriological and toxic chemical pathogens. They encompassed brainwashing, torture, electroshock, nerve agents, drugs and exotic hypnosis and surgical experiments including lobotomies, and a wide range of pharmacological “research”, all conducted on innocent, uninformed and helpless civilian victims ranging from newborn babies to adults. Many of these tests were performed on children and mentally disabled individuals. In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects were deliberately selected from poor racial minorities. Many were prisoners, who were given no choice in participation. Often, subjects were the sick or disabled, whose doctors told them they were receiving medical treatment, but instead were used as the subjects of harmful and deadly experiments. We will never know the total number who died.
The substances used – the “tools of their trade” – included LSD, heroin, morphine, Benzedrine, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, mescaline, Metrazol, ether, nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and sulfur dioxide, a variety of biological agents, sulfuric acid, scopolamine, mustard gas, radioactive isotopes, and various dioxins from Dow Chemical. They also included electroshock, synthetic estrogens, live cancer cells, animal sexual organs transplanted into humans, cow blood transfusions and much more. Deliberately-transmitted diseases included syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis, cancer, bubonic plague, beriberi, cholera, whooping cough, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis and typhoid, Lyme Disease, hemorrhagic fever and much more. Experiments were performed on children, orphans, the sick and mentally disabled, the poor, the black, and prisoners who were given no choice in participation. The CIA’s MK-ULTRA program was one of the most reprehensible programs ever conducted on human beings; it is covered in detail in this book series. Many of these experiments continued until the late 1990s and beyond, and many people claim – and provide evidence – that they still continue today.
And, true to their espionage origins, these studies all carried exotic names like Project MK-ULTRA, Project Paperclip, Project Bluebird, Project Artichoke, Operation Midnight Climax, Project Chatter, Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD), Operation Plumbbob, among others. In none of the cases detailed here, nor in other similar events, did any of these so-called government researchers face sanction for their crimes. Instead, the Department of Defense colluded with the Department of Justice to ensure no one was ever called to account. As of 2022, not a single US government researcher had been prosecuted for human experimentation, and few victims of these US government atrocities have received compensation, or in many cases, even an acknowledgment of what was done to them. The US Justice Department has been compromised right to the level of the US Supreme Court. In 1987 the Supreme Court ruled that a US serviceman who was given LSD without his consent, as part of military experiments, could not sue the US Military for damages. This is also true for all the US soldiers who fought in the Iraq-Kuwait war, who were exposed to lethal doses of so-called ‘depleted’ uranium and mycoplasma, and have suffered terribly. The US government denies not only liability, but the existence of the mens’ illnesses. And, so it doesn’t go unsaid, in none of these cases was there any concerned discussion of “human rights”.
Most of these human research programs were funded by the US government, especially the CIA, and the US military and federal or military corporations, but with full cooperation from most major universities and hospitals. They were highly secretive, and in most cases their existence was not discovered until they had been in operation for many years. It would be many more years before the Freedom of Information Act would cause records to be released but, faced with court orders to release the records, the CIA and military instead destroyed most of the documents. It was only by filing and communication errors that records of some of these projects survived. We can therefore assume the remaining evidence covers only a minuscule portion of the violations and atrocities committed.
The United States Government Accountability Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, the United States Department of Defense and other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
A quotation from the study:
“Many experiments that tested various biological agents on human subjects, referred to as Operation Whitecoat, were carried out at Fort Detrick, Maryland, in the 1950s. The human subjects originally consisted of volunteer enlisted men. However, after the enlisted men staged a sit-down strike to obtain more information about the dangers of the biological tests. No follow-ups of note were done, nor were records kept, of the participants. The US military later claimed it had contact information for only about 1,000 of the original participants. [The] United States biological defense program contains scores of divisions, departments, research groups, bio-intelligence and more, by no means all related to “defense” in any sense.”
Also in 1994, the Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs conducted what it described as “a comprehensive analysis stretching back 50 years of the extent to which veterans were exposed to potentially dangerous substances without knowledge or consent”. They produced what some termed “a damning report” concluding the Defense Department demonstrated “a consistent pattern of misrepresentation” of the hazards of its activity, and had “used” hundreds of thousands of unwitting military personnel alone, to say nothing of civilians, in bio-warfare experiments spanning at least 50 years. A synopsis is available here: The full report is available here:
Senate investigations produced substantial evidence that almost 250 populated areas of the US had been heavily contaminated with biological agents prior to 1970, with no information on the contamination since then. At that same time, the US experienced a major outbreak of the H1N1 flu strain that was apparently genetically identical to one that had disappeared more than 20 years prior, leading to the conclusion that the military had collected and preserved that strain for future application. The US military publicly admitted in 1977 that many hundreds of bio-warfare experiments had been conducted in the continental US since World War II, and that several dozens of those involved serious and potentially fatal biological agents.
Beginning around 1950, the US Army conducted at least 240 open-air bio-warfare attacks on American cities, releasing deadly nerve agents and bacteria from Alaska to Hawaii. The CIA released whooping cough bacteria from the sea near Tampa Bay, Florida, causing an epidemic that left tens of thousands of people extremely ill and killing many others. The US Navy simulated biological warfare attacks by spraying large quantities of a bacteria over San Francisco, in which many citizens died and countless contracted severe pneumonia-like illnesses. When the information was leaked, military sources insisted the bacteria were harmless, but countless thousands incurred serious urinary tract and respiratory infections, pneumonia and other illnesses, infections which were permanent: “To this day, these bacteria are a leading cause of death among the elderly in the San Francisco area”.
The US military conducted around 1,000 above-ground nuclear tests to determine the effects of radiation on a population. The Public Health Service was instructed to tell citizens downwind from nuclear bomb tests that the increases in cancers were due to neurosis, and Eisenhower ordered that women with radiation sickness, spontaneous abortions, hair loss, leukemia and brain cancer be told they were suffering from “housewife syndrome”. A secret AEC document dated April 17, 1947, titled Medical Experiments in Humans stated: “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such fieldwork should be classified Secret.” The document itself appears to be no longer accessible, but here are a few references that refer to it and provide some detail. However, try to understand the callous determination of those behind these tests. This was not a matter of three or four atomic explosions “to see what would happen”. The US government conducted more than 1,000 nuclear explosions, “to determine the effects of radiation on a population” – on their own people.
Troops from the 82nd Airborne Division wear chemical protective gear to acclimate to the heat during Operation Desert Shield. Photo by Sgt. F Lee Corkran, courtesy of U.S. Air Force.
Following its grand success in obtaining the bio-warfare and human experimentation treasures from the Japanese atrocity programs conducted at Unit 731, the US government embarked on literally hundreds of these development projects, many begun by one of history’s favorite morally-deformed psychopaths, US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. One of the better-known efforts was labeled “Project 112”, which number was its position in a list of more than 150 clandestine bio-chemical projects operated by McNamara against American civilians and military personnel, with funds and operating staff from every branch of the US military and intelligence agencies.
There were many parts to this, and many of them covering extensive areas of both the US and Canada, some pathogen dispersals reportedly covering the entire United States. The names of some of the more prominent biological programs: Operation DEW, Operation LAC, Project SHAD, all part of the very extensive Project 112. Operation Dew consisted of several separate experiments to determine the feasibility of maintaining a large aerosol cloud released offshore until it drifted over land, achieving a huge land coverage and poisoning or killing all the area inhabitants. Operation LAC involved the spraying of carcinogens and pathogens over large areas of the US and Canada, intended to test the dispersal patterns and potential geographic range of chemical or biological weapons.
Project 112 was a series of biological and chemical weapons experiments that primarily involved the dissemination of airborne biological pathogens meant to incapacitate civilian populations, that was secretly conducted on a massive scale within the US, Canada, the UK, and in vast swatches of the Pacific and some other undeveloped countries as well. It is necessary to note that the populations in the affected areas were not notified, meaning national sovereignty was violated in all instances. The Philippines and Japan were two such locations, but there were many others including Egypt, Liberia, South Korea, and the entire Pacific, and of course the domestic populations within the US, Canada and the UK were also kept ignorant of the tests. This ignorance applied equally to US military servicemen, hundreds of thousands of whom were exposed to many pathogens with varying levels of lethality, resulting in many deaths and disabilities as was also true among the tens of millions in the US civilian population.
The tests used at least 20 different biological pathogens plus another 15 or 20 chemical agents that included Sarin and VX nerve gases, mustard gas, tear gas and other unknown substances. Many of these “experiments” were conducted on US military servicemen without their knowledge, a major portion of which was conducted in a series of shipboard trials on unwitting American sailors, the project collectively known as SHAD, or Shipboard Hazard and Defense. With project SHAD, the military initially claimed the tests were designed to identify US warships’ vulnerabilities to attack, but it gradually became clear the real purpose was a search for ways to overcome defenses of enemy ships, in effect methods to guarantee the total destruction with biological pathogens of enemy naval forces at sea. One excessively ambitious effort involved attempts to literally envelop a vast section of ocean in a pervasive cloud of biological pathogens that would kill an entire enemy marine fleet while at sea.
SHAD’s objective was to learn how chemical and biological warfare agents would disperse throughout a ship, and how to develop procedures that would ensure the biological contamination of an entire enemy vessel. The total number of sailors exposed to these pathogens is unknown but is at least in the many tens of thousands. Congressional investigations accused the Department of Defense of withholding or destroying documents that would reveal numbers and identification necessary for medical treatment. Retired Navy officers have accused the Defense Department of applying not only biological pathogens but also test vaccines to the ship-board crews, which latter have led to serious long-term medical problems and illnesses including various cancers. After destroying all the existing documentation, the US military then blithely claimed their (non-existent) documentation “revealed no clear evidence of long-term complications” from the tests.
McNamara ordered the military Joint Chiefs of Staff “to consider all possible applications” of these agents (against enemy nations), and to develop a coherent plan for the deployment of an “adequate” but total “biological and chemical deterrent capability”, the plan to include cost estimates and an “appraisal of international political consequences”. The plan was approved by then President Kennedy in National Security Action Memorandum 235 (NSAM 235), which meant it was a secret and highly-classified program directed to biological and chemical warfare against humans, animals and plants.
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These were by definition very large-scale experiments that were expected to leave “significant or protracted effects on the physical or biological environment”, with the military developing and testing for this program alone more than 1,000 anti-crop biological pathogens and defoliants. Accordingly, even the US Secretary of Agriculture was involved in planning and evaluating these experiments, since a major part of US biological war planning involved what was referred to as an “anti-crop capability” that would employ biological pathogens to destroy the entire agricultural capability of a country and that would include fisheries and all water-based vegetation. A vast array of pathogens was weaponised and prepared in cluster bombs for delivery to unfortunate victims. The program went so far as to search desperately for methods of inducing biological epidemics in both plant and animal populations – in addition, of course, to entirely separate methods of killing off the human population.
This vast program was the umbrella under which many hundreds of biological dispersion tests were carried out in the continental US, effectively against the civilian population. Some of these experiments involved potentially harmless strains but many others were actually quite lethal and led to thousands of deaths and permanent debilitations within large sectors of the US civilian population, the tests as in San Francisco and Florida being two obvious examples of the latter. We cannot fail to be impressed by the passionate determination exhibited to penetrate populations under every imaginable circumstance and condition. The US military was determined to “penetrate” everything from “arctic inversion weather systems” to “destroying the population of an island complex”, from spreading pathogens over immense areas of open ocean to the penetration of “jungle vegetation”. The dispersal methods ranged from massive spray generators installed in ships or aircraft to miniatures contained in briefcases.
Another similar project was Operation Dew, which consisted of experiments to test the feasibility of creating enormous aerosol clouds of biological pathogens from offshore military vessels and maintaining the clouds intact while they drifted over land to kill or incapacitate a local population. The military ran many of these, some consisting of cadmium sulfide clouds over the continental US and Canada, at least one of which dispersed and maintained a cloud of some 150,000 km² over a heavily populated coastal region that covered three US states and much of Central Canada. Other tests included clouds of various plant spores and other biological contaminants. Some of these tests were very large indeed, with one Army Chemical Corps document revealing the test area covered virtually the entire continental US, stretching from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
Since the victims were unaware of these projects and were unwitting participants, informed consent clearly did not exist, the document record further revealing the US Defense Department conducted many of the tests in foreign countries since they were considered too unethical to perform at home. Given the illegalities and international implications, to say nothing of the domestic deaths and injuries, the entire existence of Project 112 (and SHAD) was heatedly and categorically denied by the US military, repeatedly insisting that such a program had never existed. When a CBS news report revealed some dramatic evidence and indisputable proof of the programs, the Pentagon and Defense Department, as in most such instances, exhibited “total surprise”, then made pretenses of conducting “an internal investigation” to determine if such a program had really existed – presumably, without their knowledge, somehow. Later, to mollify an enraged public, the requisite whitewashed Congressional hearings were held, after which the entire matter was quietly swept under the carpet.
Biological Weapons Tests
“Unidentified Canadian soldier with burns caused by mustard gas. This image is available from Library and Archives Canada under the reproduction reference number c080027 and under the MIKAN ID number 3194270. Source
Pentagon Records declassified in 2002 revealed that the US government and military often conducted open-air Biological and Chemical Weapons Tests on US civilians until at least the 1970s. The documents disclosed that these dozens of biological and chemical tests were far more widespread than the US military had previously acknowledged. Beginning around 1950, the US Army began a 20-year test-program that involved at least 240 open-air bio-warfare attacks on American cities that included Washington DC and San Francisco among many others. The tests included releasing deadly nerve agents in Alaska, Canada and Britain and spraying deadly bacteria over Hawaii. The CIA released whooping cough bacteria from the sea near Tampa Bay, Florida, causing a whooping cough epidemic in the city, leaving tens of thousands of people extremely ill and killing many others. The US Military also experimented with widespread dispersal of dangerous bacteria in a secret release of another strain of bacillus at Washington’s National Airport and its main bus terminal, discovering that within two weeks of release the bacteria traveled to 39 different cities in seven states.
In one long-running study that continued until at least 1970, the US Navy simulated biological warfare attacks by spraying large quantities of a bacteria over a 117 square mile area of the city of San Francisco, in which many citizens died and countless contracted serious pneumonia-like illnesses. The objective of this San Francisco experiment was to see what might happen in a real germ-warfare attack. In a classified report on their experiment, the military wrote, “It was noted that a successful BW [biological warfare] attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas”. In one such test, the Military determined that San Francisco had received enough of a dose for nearly all of the city’s 800,000 residents to inhale at least 5,000 of the Serratia Marcescens bacteria particles. After news of this attack became public, military sources insisted the bacteria were ‘harmless”, but in fact resulting illnesses were widespread, with countless thousands incurring serious urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, pneumonia and other illnesses.
According to authorities, these infections were permanent: “To this day, these bacteria are a leading cause of death among the elderly in the San Francisco area”. After revelation of the tests about 30 years later, some families filed suit against the US government claiming their relatives died and many families went bankrupt trying to pay the medical bills, but US courts all the way to the Supreme Court, declared the US government was immune from lawsuits. True to form, the media and historians appear eagerly compliant in the government’s quest to sanitise all of US history. In this case, the official narrative on the San Francisco Saracens experiment is that eight people became ill and one elderly man died of “other medical complications”, a story very far from the truth.
In another famous study, US Army biological warfare experiments were conducted in Georgia and Florida where researchers released millions of infected mosquitoes to learn if the insects could potentially spread yellow fever and dengue fever. Hundreds of residents contracted a wide array of health problems ranging from respiratory difficulties to spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. No information was given to the public, and no treatment was offered to the ill and dying. Instead, Army researchers pretended to be public health workers, and visited the victims to collect photographs and to perform medical tests to determine “the success rate” of their experiments, with no permanent records kept, and illnesses and deaths attributed to “other causes”. Albarelli wrote that, as usual, these were densely-populated black neighborhoods, where “many men, women and children became dreadfully ill, and many died.” For many years, the US Army sprayed toxic chemicals that included zinc cadmium sulfide over a large number of cities in both the US and Canada, in order to test dispersal patterns of chemical weapons. The public were never notified, and the cause of enormous number of respiratory and other illnesses was never publicly identified.
During the late 1960s, the US Army conducted an experiment they called, “A Study of the Vulnerability of Subway Passengers in New York City to Covert Attack with Biological Agents”, in which they released trillions of a strain of bacillus into the subway system during the rush hour. The wind of passing trains helped to disperse the bacteria over a wide area of New York, but there is no information about the number of illnesses or deaths among the unsuspecting civilian population because the military were interested only in the bacterial dispersion patterns and took no apparent interest in the resulting health problems. This was only one of many such experiments, which were not suspended until the 1970s. The US Army acknowledged that they conducted at least 240 such tests in populated areas across the entire nation, and that US overseas territories like Hawaii, the Pacific Islands and others were repeatedly blanketed with various bacteriological organisms in order to determine the optimum dosages and placements as well as to measure effects of the weather on dissemination patterns.
In October of 2012, the AP newswire reported an astonishing chemical-radiation program which, rather than qualifying as a test or experiment, could be considered only a secret campaign of reducing the surplus poor through mass murder. It was in the mid-1950s when the US military mounted sprayers on rooftops and vehicles, and on low-flying aircraft, and proceeded to spray an entire section of downtown St. Louis and “at least” 33 other cities including some in Canada. The spray content was zinc cadmium sulfide, a rather dangerous carcinogen, mixed with various kinds and concentrations of radioactive elements, the sprayed neighborhoods being described in military documents as “densely populated slum districts” in which about 75% of the residents were black. It seems that at the time, the residents and local officials were told these were tests of a kind of “smoke screen” that could protect the residents if the Russians attacked. The US military managed to keep the secret hidden for more than 40 years before the facts leaked out.
The areas that were sprayed – and sprayed heavily – were indeed densely-populated poor areas with about 10,000 residents each, probably 75% of whom were children. In some families, all members succumbed to cancer within a short time, and there were high rates of cancer in the sprayed areas of all cities but, since no records were maintained and no follow-ups ever performed, there is now no way to know the total number of cancers and deaths that resulted. One woman lost her father only three months after her own birth and, within a few years, watched all of her siblings and a great many of her friends, neighbors and school-mates die as well. The US military has so far refused to discuss the matter, much less admit its intent or offer compensation and, right on cue, the US National Research Council, an independent body to be sure, determined by unexplained (and inexplicable) means that these tests did not expose any citizens to harmful levels of anything, the sudden epidemic of tens of thousands of cancer deaths among poor black neighborhoods being an unfortunate statistical anomaly.
A woman named Lisa Martino-Taylor discovered the story when a colleague who had lived in that area opined that the spraying might have been the cause of her cancer, and she quickly met others who had lived in sprayed areas and who all had multiple cancer tales to tell. With that evidence, Martino-Taylor decided to research the topic for a Ph.D. thesis, and gradually uncovered the entire story. One researcher said “the level of duplicity and secrecy were shocking”, that the military “clearly went to great lengths to deceive people”. It is obvious the military could have utilised other means of finding subjects, but this is not a case of performing a test or controlled experiment. The spraying could have been meant only to kill, to eliminate much of the surplus poor in more than 30 American cities. There is no other explanation that would fit the facts, and atrocities like this match perfectly with so many others, Robert McNamara’s Project 100,000 coming immediately to mind.
Biowarfare by the US government and military against American citizens began hundreds of years ago, and has never abated. We have all heard the well-documented stories of the distribution to native aboriginals of blankets infected with smallpox and perhaps cholera, as part of the no-longer-disputed thesis of deliberate genocide. Certainly, the intent to do so is well-documented, beginning with Lord Jeffrey Amherst’s letters discussing germ warfare against American Indians, richly annotated with charming exhortations to try this method and “every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race”. Amherst’s letters alone remove any doubt about the validity of the stories, and there exists sufficient credible evidence that smallpox had been raging among the residents of Fort Pitt for some time, certainly providing a ready source of contamination. In addition, William Trent, the commander of Pittsburgh’s militia, produced a journal that is described as “… the most detailed contemporary account of the anxious days and nights in the beleaguered stronghold.” His entry for May 24, 1763, includes the following statement: “… we gave them two Blankets and a Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect.”
I do not know the extent to which this method of bio-warfare was carried out, the big surprise here being the vehemence with which groups of apologists today deny the possibility. The “yes, you did” crowd has on its side Amherst’s letters plus a useful collection of circumstantial and anecdotal evidence while the “no, we didn’t” group prepares doctorate-level dissertations filled with standard denials and little else. This latter group does not deny that very large numbers, possibly many millions, of natives did indeed succumb to smallpox, but claims this was an accidental result of infected settlers arriving in the New World with diseases for which the natives had no immunity. Of course, the elephant in the room is that even a few feeble but deliberate efforts to infect the natives could well have been the only source necessary to trigger the waves of smallpox that ravaged the country. That, plus the extensively documented intent to exterminate the natives by any and all means, is sufficient of itself to justify strong suspicion the stories are true.
And it wasn’t only the North American natives that suffered this plague. It isn’t widely known, but bio-warfare was one of the natural resources (or raw materials, if you prefer), that European explorers brought to the New World. Even 500 years ago, white Europeans displayed great enthusiasm for the extermination of the peoples in other nations, all generally deemed subhuman infestations. We shouldn’t forget that the entire population of Tasmania was exterminated by these same Europeans, rendering extinct an entire race of people, hunting them down and killing them to the last man, woman and child. And for no particular reason. Closer to home, and as I’ve written elsewhere, Columbus’ expeditions to the new world set in motion a program of genocide that covered all the Americas, exterminating potentially more than 125 million people including the entire Maya, Inca and Aztec civilisations, as well as the Carib Indians and 98% of American aboriginal peoples. Nobody today knows the precise population numbers, and apologists are very eager to minimise these genocides, so we will never know the truth. Narváez and Pizarro invaded and attacked the Aztec and Inca Empires in about 1520, both introducing smallpox as their front-line weapon of mass destruction. It was primarily the smallpox that Narváez introduced to the Aztecs that spread to Peru and so greatly assisted Pizzaro in exterminating the Inca. We can hardly argue this was accidental. American (and European, too) historians are unreasonably determined to ignore or whitewash the genocides that were inflicted throughout the Americas. History books, official government documents, virtually every information source, begins with “The unintentional yet catastrophic introduction of smallpox …”, which statement is at best wishful thinking and at worst a damned lie. We are not exactly lacking evidence of the great tactical successes of the white man’s taking advantage of “the unique susceptibility” of native Americans to smallpox.
For many decades, nobody in the US was safe from victimisation in these bio-warfare tests and experiments on civilians. At one time the CIA even infiltrated the drinking water supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington (I can hardly imagine a more worthy candidate for a biological experiment than the FDA) with a not altogether harmless chemical, to test its ability to poison drinking water supplies with LSD and other mind-altering agents. By 1950 the US military was actively conducting open-air tests throughout the country, experimenting with very large numbers of viruses and harmful bacteria, exposing millions of civilians to disease and death. Concurrently, the CIA was actively conducting their own experiments, using their authority to withdraw pathogens at will from the military’s bio-warfare arsenal. In one of these cases in the 1950s, the CIA caused a whooping cough epidemic in Tampa Bay, Florida, to test their ability to infect human populations on a large scale. Whooping cough (Pertussis) was chosen because it is a highly-contagious airborne disease that spreads easily and is often fatal, especially to small children. The disease causes such violent coughing that victims can break their own ribs, the coughing spells leaving them exhausted. An enormous number of people became seriously ill, and many died, none realising their distress was visited upon them by their own government.
During the widespread public protests against the Vietnam war in the 1960s, the US military asked President Nixon for permission to test its arsenal of biological and chemical weapons against the civilian war protestors, to (1) demonstrate the “efficacy” of the chemicals and biological agents, (2) “control” the protestors and eliminate future protests, and (3) “educate people” on gas weaponry.
The US government exposed millions of Americans to chemical and biological agents, in clandestine experiments that spanned many decades. In the 1950s and sixties, scientists from the Fort Detrick biological weapons program ran a series of tests to determine how easy it would be to expose large numbers of people to a lethal bacterium. Containers of semi-toxic bacteria were planted in the New York subway, and bacteria were secretly pumped into the Pentagon (another great candidate for a biological experiment) ventilation system and clouds of bacteria were released in San Francisco. The process never stopped. In 2005, US Homeland Security released a claimed (but unidentified) “nontoxic gas” into New York’s Grand Central Station to trace the flow of airborne chemicals through the terminal. These tests were part of an experimental program originating mostly at Fort Detrick that began in the late 1940s and has not abated. During the first 20 years alone, the US military acknowledged that about 250 such tests had been conducted in which many tens of millions of civilians were unknowingly exposed. When these tests or programs were discovered, the military consistently claimed the agents employed were harmless to humans, but it has become abundantly clear over the years that many of these chemical and biological agents were far from harmless.
Many of the references to these bio-warfare experiments make reference to something called “Operation Whitecoat”, which was a series of experiments conducted by the US military at Fort Detrick for about twenty years from 1953 to 1973. In these references, it is claimed the Seventh-day Adventist Church “struck an extraordinary deal with the US Army”, in which the church would provide its members as test subjects to be “infected with debilitating pathogens”, in return for being excused from participation in war. The story is that all participants “were informed of the purpose and goals of each project before providing consent to participate” in the program, and were assured the tests were in no way related to the development of bio-warfare pathogens. However, many knowledgeable observers have claimed the men were not only misled but coerced into participating, and there are documented records of protests, riots and sit-down strikes by these “willing and fully-informed participants” who refused to proceed without full information about the nature and dangers of the experiments. So, not so willing and informed as we are led to believe. Nevertheless, in the (propaganda) textbook titled, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (2007), the Surgeon-General reached a new level in military humor with claims that Operation Whitecoat “set the standard for ethics and human use in research”. Also, the military claims no one died in these experiments and that “only two” persons suffered “long-term medical complications”, but knowing the list of pathogens used and considering that the military refuses to declassify the records, we can be forgiven for harboring doubts.
Funding for most of these experiments was provided by the US military and the CIA, and occasionally by private corporations under contract to the military. These so-called “research programs” were typically classified Secret or Top Secret, in most cases remaining classified indefinitely, their existence usually revealed only by accidental disclosure. For various reasons, the 1970s and 1980s experienced a flood of disclosures that opened a window into a vast array of literally hundreds of unethical and criminal enterprises of brutal and often fatal human experimentation conducted by the US government against its own citizens. In spite of this, there still remain large numbers of experiments that are suspected but cannot now be proven, often because all documentation was destroyed in response to overwhelming public anger and realistic fears of political destabilisation, to say nothing of a potential flood of millions of lawsuits.
The US Military’s Surgeon-General’s Report
Lt. Gen. Patricia Horoho, U.S. Army Surgeon General hosts a roundtable with key medical representatives from Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, April 24, 2015 (Photo: Master Sgt. Anthony Elliott, PRMC). Source
The official Government text, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (2007), makes several interesting admissions. One is that the US tested explosive anti-personnel munitions containing anthrax on Gruinard Island near the coast of Scotland in 1942. It notes that “These experiments successfully produced anthrax among targeted sheep”. In fact, the experiment was so successful the island was quarantined for almost 50 years, and was finally partially decontaminated only in 1986, using “2,000 tons of seawater and 280 tons of formaldehyde”. Decontaminated or not, the island still boasts neither sheep nor humans as residents. No word on whether Scotland provided informed consent. (You can download the full .pdf file at the reference above).
It also states that between about 1950 and 1970, “at least 239 open-air ‘field tests’ were conducted in the US in which the general public and test subjects were uninformed”. These tests contained all manner of biological and chemical pathogens which were dispersed over heavily-populated areas that included Minneapolis, St. Louis, New York City, San Francisco, and several of the military’s own bases including Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The report further states that “In conjunction with the US Department of Agriculture”, the military released “anti-crop agents”, i.e. herbicides lethal to the nation’s food supply. It states further that the open-air releases of pathogens were performed merely “to study viability and infectivity”, the resulting massive flood of medical disabilities and the many deaths being either unexpected or perhaps irrelevant. However, the report notes plaintively, “These studies [performed without knowledge or consent of the victims] tainted the history of the offensive biological warfare program”. We don’t need an imagination to understand why.
While we can appreciate his candor, the Surgeon-General failed to record the instances where, in testing “techniques of biological pathogen dispersion” the city of Minneapolis was sprayed with germ warfare materials 61 different times in tests lasting several months, or that the “assumption” the pathogens were “harmless” may have been incorrect in light of the enormous increase in respiratory illnesses experienced in the dispersal areas in and near Minneapolis. He also failed to record the test with the foolish code name of “Big Tom”, where the Department of Defense sprayed the entire population of Oahu in 1965 with a bacterium while practicing simulated (and hoped-for) attack on Cuba. He also failed to note that Big Tom caused big infections in tens of thousands of people, particularly those young, elderly, or ill with weakened immune systems. The Surgeon-General informs us further that, included in these other environmental field tests, the military did indeed conduct many “controversial studies” that were meant “to determine whether African Americans were more susceptible …”. They were.
Finally, the report tells us that “Public disclosure of the testing program in the Washington Post on December 22 , 1976, and in US Senate hearings in 1977 resulted in harsh criticism …”. No idea why. But then we are told the CDC investigated the matter of the US military poisoning the population and concluded that in 100 outbreaks of one particular dangerous bacterium, “none was caused by the [favorite strain used by the military], and the vast outbreaks of illnesses by the same bacteria were simply unfortunate accidents caused by “opportunistic pathogens”. In a further attempt to un-blemish his record, the Surgeon-General also claims that “Numerous unsubstantiated allegations were made” about the US using biological pathogens against North Korea and China, and swears truly that “Biological weapons have never been used by the US military”, but that the US State Department “suspected” China, Russia and Cuba to have done so. No information on whether those suspected releases by China, Russia and Cuba might also have been attributable to other opportunistic pathogens.
As a side note, in 1978 the US Department of Defense admitted that, despite a Presidential order and an international treaty banning the research and development of biological agents, it continued to operate research facilities at 127 sites, institutions and universities around the nation, and an unspecified number (but around 100) in other nations. Lastly, one researcher provided this gem: “An extract from a U.S. Army report details why smallpox was selected as the agent of choice.” Its “attractive” features are listed as: 1. Smallpox is highly infectious with close contact. It spreads readily from an infected person to susceptible individuals. 2. A long incubation period of relatively constant duration permits the operatives responsible to leave the country before the first case is diagnosed. 3. The duration of illness for those who recover is relatively long.”
Nuclear Radiation Experiments
When Dwight Eisenhower became the US president, he ordered the Atomic Energy Commission “to keep Americans confused” with explanations about nuclear radiation causing cancer, and any government employees who told the truth were fired. It was not until the 1980s that the truth about the widespread radiation experiments were partially revealed. At the time, a US House of Representatives Subcommittee concluded, “All evidence suggesting that radiation was having harmful effects was not only disregarded but actually suppressed”. This was a time when the US government told its soldiers that it was safe to march into atomic test sites immediately after a nuclear explosion. The enormous number of victims included civilians, prison inmates, federal workers, hospital patients, pregnant women, infants, developmentally disabled children and military personnel. It has been documented that as many as 500,000 US military personnel were contaminated during their compulsory participation in various nuclear tests and the post-war occupation of Japan. A great many of them died, and a much greater number suffered from radiation poisoning, leukemia and various cancers.
Beginning in the 1940s, the US government released massive amounts of various radioactive substances into the air, ground and water over almost 100,000 square miles in Washington, exposing hundreds of thousands of civilians to deadly radiation. One event, inexplicably named “Project Chariot”, perhaps for the legendary mythical vehicle that transports us to heaven, the US Atomic Energy Commission spread huge amounts of radioactive materials over Point Hope in Alaska, causing so many genetic deformities that even today, more than 50 years later, cancer is still the leading cause of death in Point Hope. The government kept the radiation releases secret, and repeatedly lied about them for more than four decades until part of the truth escaped in 1986. A secret document from the Atomic Energy Commission titled “Medical Experiments in Humans” stated: “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such fieldwork should be classified Secret.”
Researchers in the United States have performed thousands of human radiation experiments to determine the effects of atomic radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, generally on people who were poor, sick, or powerless. Most of these tests were performed, funded, or supervised by the US military, Atomic Energy Commission, or US government agencies. The experiments included a wide array of studies, involving things like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children or conscientious objectors, inserting radium rods into the noses of soldiers, deliberately releasing radioactive chemicals over US and Canadian cities, injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals, and irradiating the testicles of prison inmates, amongst other things. It was only in 1994 that the US government formed its investigative Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments – due entirely to public outcry.
From the document: American nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three decades of radiation experiments on U.S. citizens: Report prepared by the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power, of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, November, 1986: U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1986, 65-0190:
“The human subjects were captive audiences or populations that experimenters might frighteningly have considered “expendable”: the elderly, prisoners, hospital patients suffering from terminal diseases or who might not have retained their full faculties for informed consent. … no evidence that informed consent was granted. … the government covered up the nature of the experiments and deceived the families of deceased victims as to what had transpired. … subjects received doses that approached or even exceed presently recognized limits for occupational radiation exposure. Doses were as great as 93 times the (maximum) body burden recognized”. The paper then proceeds: “Some of the more repugnant or bizarre of these experiments are summarized below.
Beginning in the late 1940s, researchers at the University of Rochester injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged. During the 1950s and 1960s, atmospheric nuclear explosions in Nevada, which were part of Operation Plumbbob were later determined to have released enough radiation to have caused as many as 200,000 excess cases of thyroid cancer amongst US citizens who were exposed to fallout from the explosions. CBS News tells us that “It was the biggest and the most controversial nuclear test series to ever take place in the continental United States. Between May 28 and October 7, 1957, a series of 29 atomic bombs were detonated as part of a study of the effects that nuclear explosions had on structures, people and animals. About 16,000 American troops were exposed, as well as some 1,200 pigs.” However, the number of exposed civilians would appear to be much greater than admitted, even by the media.
During the 1950s and possibly much later, the US Atomic Energy Commission sponsored research whereby young boys were fed breakfast cereal heavily laced with radioactive materials so researchers could record the effects. The parents were told their children were being fed a special diet rich in iron. Beginning in 1945 and continuing at least until the late 1970s, the US government arranged the injection of plutonium and uranium into patients at many hospitals, including those at Chicago, San Francisco and New York. None of the victims were either informed or able to give consent, and didn’t know the content of the injections. Few survived.
Beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, the US Atomic Energy Commission began an extensive study of the health effects on humans of fluoride, a key component of nuclear bomb production. For more than ten years, residents of New York and US other cities were exposed to fluoride in their drinking water, with their blood and tissue samples covertly gathered and analyzed. The study discovered that fluoride was one of the most dangerous aspects of nuclear weapons production and had extreme adverse effects on the central nervous system. The US government quickly suppressed the information in the name of “national security”, from a fear that lawsuits by workers contaminated with fluoride would undermine full-scale production of nuclear weapons
Until at least the 1970s, the US Department of Defense was funding non-consensual body radiation experiments on poor, black cancer patients who were told they were receiving a treatment that might cure their cancer, but in reality the Pentagon was attempting to determine the effects of high levels of radiation on the human body. One of the doctors involved in the experiments, Robert Stone, was worried about litigation by the patients, so he only referred to them by their initials on the medical reports, so that “there will be no means by which the patients can ever connect themselves up with the report”, in order to prevent “either adverse publicity or litigation”.
Only in the mid-1990s did the US government finally release thousands of documents relating to human radiation experiments where the government paid research institutes for information about the effects of heavy doses of radiation on humans, to learn how military personnel might be affected by a nuclear blast. These experiments were conducted at universities all across the US including New York, California and the University of Rochester. The documents revealed that government agencies had conducted more than 400 separate radiation experiments on almost 20,000 unwitting American citizens, claiming there was no way to know “the full result” because in most cases “the government kept no record of the victims’ names”.
And the US government’s position on this? “While the experiments raised questions of medical ethics, they led to some medical breakthroughs.” One US official praised the tests, saying they were instrumental in diagnosing and treating thyroid problems, heart disease, cancer and other conditions. And then we have the requisite – and obscenely dishonest – US government hypocrisy: “We are grateful to these families for the tough lessons they have taught us about trust, responsibility and accountability between the government and the people.”
Beginning in the 1950s, the US military conducted about 100 above-ground nuclear weapons tests in Nevada, New Mexico and Guam, which exposed tens of millions of Americans, particularly children, to large amounts of radioactive fallout which was simply released into the atmosphere. This exposure was greatest in the immediate area, but prevailing winds carried the deadly radiation for thousands of miles throughout most of the US, much of Canada and Mexico, these innocent citizens paying a very high price for the development of the US nuclear weapons program. It wasn’t only the above-ground atomic tests, but massive radiation releases from American atomic weapons production plants such as Hanford in Washington state, that contributed to the problems.
Much of the radiation collected on pastures and grasslands where it was consumed by cows and goats and collected in the animals’ milk with the result that children were at the highest risk of developing various cancers. There is no certain way to know the numbers of American citizens who died from various cancers and other illnesses caused by the radiation from these tests, but millions of American families even to this day have a history of thyroid problems, especially those from the hardest-hit areas of the country. Certainly, many tens of millions were affected in total, and the resulting deaths may have been in the millions as well, many contracting related health complications but without accurate diagnoses.
One researcher named Ernest J. Sternglass claims that many millions of children were damaged by nuclear weapons fallout, as well as the nuclear reactor radiation releases, with studies now confirming that the widespread contamination was much greater than the government had ever admitted. After releasing the results of his research, Sternglass was immediately sanctioned by the government and lost all his research funding. His research found that the radiation, in addition to causing the obvious cancers and higher incidences of thyroid disease, was also strongly correlated with lower national intelligence test scores, low birth weight, immune system suppression, and higher infant mortality. In fact, US infant mortality began a strong rise in the 1950s after the commencement of these tests, but began to exhibit an immediate decline after nuclear testing went underground. It is a good guess that these tests continue today in some form, that they are at least in part responsible for the astonishingly high infant mortality rate experienced in the US even when compared to many other less-developed nations, and the fact that the high mortality rates are found primarily among minorities and the poor. This may also shed light on the apparent lack of concern by the US government and health services for the high infant mortality rate: it may not be accidental nor a result of poor health care, and is not being addressed because it is the known result of deliberate ongoing tests. It is disheartening that so much of the US media willingly conspire to keep these travesties buried and to trash those who attempt to expose them. Jstor charmingly refers to Sternglass as a “Controversial Prophet of Doom”.
Suspicions of this radioactive contamination of the population have existed for decades, but information has been virtually impossible to obtain due to resistance from the US government and to the fact that the military deliberately maintained few records of the fallout from its test results. It is only today that information is slowly being released by the authorities, in particular on the 24 areas of the nation that received the most extreme radiation and where the exposure was 100 times more than first reported. The US government and military have of course always known of the dangers and effects of their atomic tests, but suppressed all information for 60 years, simply acknowledging today that some people “may have been adversely affected or sickened” as a result of the radiation exposure. The US Atomic Energy Commission was worried about the release of incriminating information immediately after its first few tests, and secret memos now reveal discussions and agreement to withhold information “to avoid possible embarrassment”, so no public reports were ever released.
But the evidence is that the US government and its public health agencies knew from the beginning that atmospheric nuclear tests would result in exposures and deaths for countless thousands of unwitting and trusting Americans. One victim said, “We who have watched our families and friends sicken and die, we’ve known for 40 years that the government has lied and covered up the shameful truth that fallout was deadly, nationwide.” The tragedy is not only of the radioactive contamination but the callous withholding of information from an unsuspecting and trusting public. It is clear that the US government was fully aware of the strength and geographic extent of the radioactive fallout, from many newly-released documents. At the same time, the Public Health Service was instructed to tell citizens downwind from nuclear bomb tests that the increases in cancers were due to neurosis, and that women with radiation sickness, hair loss, leukemia and brain cancer were suffering from “housewife syndrome”.
An indication of the callous and obscene nature which has always pervaded the US government: Kodak began receiving customer complaints about fogged film, the cause of which was quickly traced to corn husks from Indiana that Kodak used as packaging material for its film. A Kodak physicist discovered that all corn husks were heavily contaminated with radioactivity. After this, the US government agreed to secretly provide Kodak with advance information on all future nuclear tests, including “expected distribution of radioactive material in order to anticipate local contamination”. Unfortunately, the population were not provided with the same ‘advance notification’ as were Kodak’s corn husks, the people not being relevant to corporate profits. The victims now tell us, “In fact, the Government warned the entire photographic industry and provided maps and forecasts of potential contamination. Where, I ask, were the maps for dairy farmers? Where were the warnings to parents of children in these areas? The Government protected rolls of film, but not the lives of our kids. Why did they do that when they had all the information about hot spots and fallout, and yet they did not warn the people of this country about the dangers inherent in radioactive fallout? Why has the government withheld information until now?” It is reprehensible that our citizens were intentionally exposed to radioactivity and yet those who knew remained silent – even in the face of evidence that said if we provided treatment and information early, we might alleviate suffering or prevent diseases.” We really have to pity these Americans who, in spite of the overwhelming evidence, cannot bring themselves to accept the truth that their government didn’t inform them of the radioactivity because they were the guinea pigs in the tests. The painful deaths of those millions of children were not accidents from above-ground nuclear tests; they were the purpose of the tests.
The cover-up extended far beyond ‘not warning’ the population. Upon some information becoming public, both the government and the National Cancer Institute not only deliberately withheld information but engaged in misinformation, deflecting attention to only Iodine-131, claiming it had a half-life of only 8 days and was therefore of no real concern. But the authorities ignored other fallout ingredients like Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 that had half-lives of 30 years or more and have the same toxic effects on the human body. They also claimed that hospital patients had been given “far higher” therapeutic doses of Iodine-131 and that there had never been proven any correlation between this radioactivity and cancers or other illnesses. Thirty years ago, a group of Americans sued the government for damages resulting from these tests, but the high US courts refused to grant relief. Today, the US Congress recognises “a national day of remembrance” for these citizens who “deserve to be recognized for the sacrifice they have made for the defense of the United States”. What else is there to say? The deranged US military and the “democratic” American government didn’t kill millions of their own people and sicken countless millions of others by their criminally insane and reckless experiments, but rather those generous American citizens willingly “made a sacrifice in defense of their country”. Touching. And the country was being defended against what? How pathetically dishonest and hypocritical to make such a claim.
In addition to the atomic bomb blasts there were hundreds of other lethally-radioactive weapons tested, which were apparently designed to “contaminate enemy battlefields”, and in 1959 the US Air Force secretly conducted eight intentional nuclear reactor meltdowns, melting highly-radioactive nuclear fuel in high-temperature furnaces, then using enormous fans to spread the radiation in attempts to learn the results of actual reactor meltdowns.
On Feb. 12, 2001, Deseret News published an article on Dugway, listing some of the many hundreds of radiation, chemical and biological events that served to contaminate much of that state and indeed much of America, and noted that much new and secretive military testing continues even today. The article noted that US Energy Department records show the US military conducted 141 atomic bomb explosions at their Nevada Proving Grounds alone, and these tests were “only a small portion of the 930 tests (both above and below ground) conducted there through 1992”. It has been proven possible, and perhaps even likely, that the prevailing winds during these test explosions carried lethal radioactive fallout to virtually every area of the continental United States.
The article also mentioned one case as an example of many, that of Oleta Nelson and her husband Isaac, who on May 19, 1953, gathered outdoors with their neighbors to watch a fallout cloud from what was later proven to have been a particularly dirty nuclear explosion. Apparently, no one worried because the government falsely told residents it was safe. By that evening, Mrs. Nelson suffered a headache that refused to abate for more than six months, and within weeks her hair was falling out. She had developed brain cancer and would suffer terribly for years before dying. As in all such cases, the courts ruled the government was immune from suits for actions it made for national defense, and was not liable for compensation to any of the victims. And privately, members of the US Congress have admitted they refused to make the victims of military tests eligible for compensation “because it simply would be too expensive”. In other words, the US military killed and injured so many American citizens in their tests, that the government wouldn’t have enough money to pay all the claims.
REMEMBERING CASTLE BRAVO 69 YEARS LATER
And it isn’t only within the US that the military performed these nuclear tests and exposed innocent and unknowing civilians to extremes of radiation. The Americans did the same in the Pacific after World War II, conducting above-ground nuclear explosions in various of their new “possessions” in the South Pacific, one of these being the Marshall Islands where the US performed about 70 of these tests, ravaging the islands with lethal radioactivity. On the Pacific atoll of Bikini, the entire land mass was, according to an article in the NYT, “so radioactive that there was little hope of allowing its displaced population ever to return home”. According to the same article, the Defense Department concluded that there was so much contaminated soil it couldn’t be cleaned so they left it to decay naturally. Some radioactive elements have a half-life of only 30 years, but “the US also left behind plutonium-239, which has a half-life of 24,000 years.” The UK Guardian tells us that “In 1954 a hydrogen bomb (code name Bravo), 750 times larger than the Hiroshima bomb, was tested in the Marshall Islands.” 
The article detailed further that the US gathered much of the severely radioactive soil, dumped it into a nuclear bomb crater, then covered it with a thin concrete cap that didn’t even meet American standards for landfills for household trash. Then, they permitted the displaced residents to return home, but “about half the atoll was still uninhabitable and most of the rest had lost its ability to grow food”. Nuclear authorities warned that the dome could easily be breached by a typhoon, but the US military saw no reason to worry because the island was apparently more radioactive outside the dome than on the inside, so even “a total breach wouldn’t significantly change the radiation dose delivered to the local resident population”. And of course, the radiation is escaping and spreading, and plutonium has been discovered in the South China Sea, 4,500 kilometers away. US authorities provided no data on cancers, leukemias, radiation sickness and deaths resulting from their reckless mishandling of this enterprise.
It’s even much worse than I’ve described above. The nuclear explosions at the Marshall Islands were part of military Project 4.1, a medical study conducted on the natives of those islands, “to see what would happen”. William Boardman wrote an excellent article on these tests that was published by the Information Clearing House on January 11, 2014. The article is still available and is worth reading. The following paragraph is a synopsis of his article:
In the 1950s, the U.S. conducted 67 atomic and hydrogen bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, vaporizing islands and exposing entire populations to fallout, while contaminating in perpetuity an enormous area of the beautiful South Pacific. The islanders received near fatal doses of radiation from one major test, and were then moved onto a highly contaminated island to serve as human guinea pigs for 30 years. The story was classified top secret until the 1990s, and has remained largely unknown to the world because the people living on the Marshall Islands have no microphone. As a measure of lethality, the CDC reported that the Chernobyl reactor meltdown released 40 million curies of radiation, the largest US above-ground nuclear test in Nevada released 150 million, while one blast over the Marshall Islands (the largest one) released 6.3 billion curies – more than 30 times as much radiation as the others combined. One of the bombs detonated was more than 1,000 times as powerful as that used on Hiroshima, resulting in generations of cancers and birth defects. One writer stated, In 1979, a federal court awarded the Islanders $750 million in compensation but the US government simply refused to pay. Movie director Adam Horowitz produced a documentary titled “Nuclear Savage” his second film attempt about the American military use and abuse of the Marshall Islands, but the authorities have worked feverishly for years to prevent the movie from being broadcast on public television. The aftermath consists of millions of square kilometers of uninhabitable land and unusable ocean, generations of children with cancers, very high rates of miscarriages and stillbirths, so many cases of heartbreaking birth defects, all so the US military could obtain “better data on this method of maiming and killing people”. One writer said, “This cynical act by the U.S. government was conducted with such arrogant racism that without incredible archival footage and shocking secret documents, the story would seem unbelievable.”
It was similar with the 1979 disaster at the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island, which involved a partial meltdown of the reactor, a hydrogen explosion and the venting of massive amounts of radioactive gases as well as the dumping of huge volumes of heavily contaminated water into a major source of public drinking water. The entire episode was a flurry of coverups and denials, long sequences of false statements informing the public there was no danger, no radiation releases and no need to evacuate civilians. US authorities also propagated the misinformation that no deaths or illnesses resulted from the accident. All these claims were bitterly false. Infant mortality jumped by almost 55% immediately after the accident while the incidence of most adult cancers doubled or tripled, and long-term childhood cancers and birth defects were up to 35% higher. In one study, Gould and Goldman estimated at least 50,000 to 100,000 deaths resulted directly from this nuclear accident, but the US government was entirely silent, leaving the citizens to fend for themselves however they were able. Just as with the multitude of deaths, cancers and other diseases from the planned nuclear explosions, the truth was heavily suppressed.
Buttressed by a myth heavily flogged by the media, popular opinion in the US is that Three Mile Island was the worst nuclear disaster in the country, but that was never true. There were others that were far worse but that were heavily suppressed by the authorities and totally censored in the press. In 1959, Rocketdyne’s Santa Susana nuclear laboratory, located only 30 miles from Los Angeles, suffered a meltdown where enormous amounts of radioactive material, primarily the most toxic elements of plutonium and strontium, were vented into the open air for more than two weeks before the catastrophe was discovered. The technology of the time was incapable of measuring the vast amount of vented radiation, but one five-year study by a group of scientists concluded the radiation released from Rocketdyne’s lab was 460 times that released at Three Mile Island, in this case contaminating the entire San Fernando Valley. Several studies have proven greatly-elevated incidence of cancers, but all levels of government and military have obstructed any attempts to learn the truths or to obtain medical assistance or compensation. In the official record, this event never occurred.
And these nuclear meltdowns were by no means the only ones. From the middle 1950s to the late 1960s at least four other reactors suffered explosive and catastrophic meltdowns; The Borax-1 military reactor, the military’s EBTR-1, the military’s Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 and the FERMI-1 reactors all suffered meltdowns, several with explosions and most with many deaths. But again, these events were heavily censored by the government and appeared no place in media reports and to this day most people are unaware they occurred. There were others, too, and these others were not accidents. The US military, unsatisfied with the information obtained from accidental meltdowns, staged five or six deliberate reactor meltdowns, causing the explosions that would melt the reactor fuel and open the facilities to the atmosphere to vent the radioactive gases into the environment. None of these were announced, were classified as Top Secret, with the resident populations having no understanding of the great increases in cancers and a host of other illnesses that befell them.
There have been various Congressional hearings, some books and articles written on this topic, but in every case the US government – which means the White House and those powers pulling its strings – have wherever possible simply denied events and liability. One statement that is typical of many, said, “There is no scientific reason to expect that any of the subjects … will incur any harmful effects. Therefore, there is neither any reason for attempting any further follow-up studies on these subjects, nor to propose new legislation to compensate them.” And most often, when information was leaked, the first response of the government was to stonewall and deny. Only if the mass media were willing to pick up the story and there was a danger of widespread public rebellion would the government act. Senator John Glenn, he of moon-shot fame, conducted a long enquiry into some of these secret experiments and produced a report which he delivered to the White House. Glenn stated, “The response of the Reagan administration to my 1986 staff report can be described as, “Thanks for the information, we’re not going to do anything”.” The full extent of the US government’s experiments on unsuspecting people will probably never be known because many incriminating documents remain Top Secret or classified. Other documents are often declared as missing, destroyed, or “unavailable”, in an attempt to hide the truth from the public.
Michael McCally, Christine Cassel, and Daryl Kimball produced an article on “U.S. Government-Sponsored Radiation Research on Humans 1945-1975”, which is available online and worth reading. The document lists repeated occasions, from the early 1940s until at least 1965, of “intentional release of [a radioactive element] to the environment”, where the general American population were viewed simply as experimental subjects. The authors made reference to a book by Barton Hacker, who was an historian working for the Department of Energy, which makes clear that “early radiation scientists had a much clearer idea of radiation health effects, including cancer, than present apologists allow”. They wrote that “Given the harm that was evidently done, the likelihood of litigation, and public concern about environmental radiation contamination, it is likely that this story will unfold [only over a great many years], that officials will hide behind a false veil of “national security” as long as they are permitted to do so.
This is yet one more appropriate time to ask the question, “Who is actually running the country?”, when the US Congress, the ostensible government of the people, has no power to obtain information or force compliance from what is obviously the real government. Who are these people, who can conduct these secret tests that expose so much of the American population to illness and death, then simply classify or destroy their records and refuse to account for their actions? Who is actually running the country?
From their article:
“In 1982, the New York Times provided evidence that policy-makers foresaw dangers and acted to cover them up. The story included a statement by a former Army medic, Van R. Brandon, of Sacramento, that his medical unit kept two sets of books of radiation readings at the Nevada Test Site during the 1956-57 tests. One set was to show that no one received an [elevated] exposure, Brandon told the paper. The other set of books showed … the actual reading. That set was brought in a locked briefcase every morning, he recalled. DoE officials simply denied Brandon’s allegations, and no further investigation was pursued. From the beginning of the nuclear age, the federal government not only ignored or suppressed knowledge of abuses in the nuclear experimental program, it also fought all attempts to hold it accountable for damages. A series of Supreme Court decisions dating back to 1950 bars both atomic veterans and downwinders from suing the federal government. Veterans are denied the right to sue for injuries suffered while on active duty because the Court believes that this would interfere with military necessity and national security. In essence, the court held that setting off nuclear bombs was within the discretionary power of high-ranking officials and could not be questioned in a lawsuit for damages.
Government doctors and scientists brainwashed the public into believing low dose radiation was not harmful. Totally ignored was the knowledge that the radiation from nuclear fallout could lead to an increased risk of cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, immune system disease, reproductive abnormalities, sterility, birth defects, and genetic mutations which could be passed on from generation to generation. The full extent of this radiation damage to the American public during the Cold War years will never be known. Amazingly, these clandestine studies were conducted at the most prestigious medical institutions and colleges, including the University of Chicago, Harvard, the University of Washington, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vanderbilt University in Nashville, and the previously mentioned universities.”
The historical record is also being sanitised by claims that the on-duty physicians “may have had no idea what they were injecting into their patients”, a claim that is patently ridiculous. These were not junior medical students performing routine functions on order of their superiors; they were senior military and other doctors who absolutely would not participate in such procedures without knowledge. No physician, then or now, will accept a syringe from someone and proceed to inject his own patients without any knowledge or information. The physicians were also instructed to obtain x-rays in “a normal way” so as to arouse no suspicions with the patients, and were cautioned about entering any of the resulting data in the patient’s medical records. They knew what they were doing, and were taking pains to leave no tracks. They were also instructed to send all records directly, and only, to those in the Manhattan project to guard against any of the information entering the hospital’s record system and therefore perhaps becoming public.
In addition to the group exposures where radioactivity was dispersed over widespread populated areas, there were thousands of cases of the military and the government using individuals or groups of individuals in specific experiments designed to illuminate the toxicity or lethality of those materials. There were so many experiments with pregnant mothers who were fed radioactive elements to determine transmission through the placental barrier or the effect on an unborn fetus, with almost certain guarantees of stillbirths, genetic deformities or spontaneous abortions. Groups of individuals in prisons, hospitals, sanitaria, orphanages, were used as free test material for every experiment imaginable, all done in secrecy and without the knowledge of the victims. Often, after administering elements like plutonium, the doctors would extract several of a patient’s teeth, or a rib, to determine the extent to which these elements would concentrate in teeth and bones. None of the victims understood what was happening to them.
In many cases, radioactive elements were administered to humans simply to test instruments that measured radiation. In effect, hundreds of people, especially children, were injected with lethal radioactive carcinogens simply to be used to calibrate instruments, with no therapeutic intent. In what appears to be literally thousands of other cases, large groups, and again especially children, were fed large doses of radioactive material simply to study the effects on the human body, and in so many cases the intent was actually to do harm. Many radioactive elements were known to damage beyond use the kidneys and liver, and the physicians would inject increasingly larger amounts until the damage appeared. In some instances, they wanted to learn the dosage at which organ damage began to appear, but in many other cases they were looking to determine the dosages at which organ failure would occur. Trusting patients would be deliberately injected with radioactive toxins at dosages meant to destroy their critical body organs, which would necessarily result in death. Many of the tests and studies were unquestionably designed to kill.
Often, the hospitals would use homeless people, inviting them to consider the hospital as a residence where they would have a bed, good food, and make a contribution to medical science by dying. Often, the doses these victims would receive – at one time – would be 30 to 40 times, and even 100 times the maximum permissible annual amount, sufficient to fry almost anything. Sometimes, physicians would inject an arm or leg with large amounts of plutonium or a similar element, then amputate the limb and send it for testing to determine the extent to which these elements were “bone-seeking”. In every case, some vacuous excuse would be made to justify the amputation, often blaming the amputation on a “suddenly-discovered” cancer, the patients again having no understanding of what was happening to them. In one case of a 36-year-old man named Elmer Allen, military doctors injected large amounts of plutonium into his leg, then amputated it several days later on the pretense of pre-existing bone cancer. Twenty years later, officials tracked down the man and subjected him to whole-body radiation experiments and ran tests to determine the amount of plutonium remaining in his body from his earlier experiments. The man never did learn what happened to him.
In another case, a 58-year-old California man suffering from a stomach ulcer was injected with doses of plutonium equivalent to 450 times the maximum lifetime exposure, the doctors telling his family he had advanced cancer and had only a few months to live. They even published reports on their findings. When released documents accidentally revealed the facts of this case, the authorities refused to release any information on the grounds that to do so “might adversely affect national security”. Countless hundreds, and perhaps countless thousands of prison inmates and hospital patients would have their testicles injected with high amounts of radioactive material to determine the dose at which radiation would render an individual sterile. In one case, about 60 small children were injected with radioactive iodine to study its effect on the thyroid. There was never any follow-up, though most of those children would have developed cancers.
The official story is that the original criteria for these tests specified that subjects should be of older age, meaning relatively short life expectancies, apparently to mitigate the magnitude of the crimes. The people they killed by these experiments had only ten years to live anyway. However, in many of the cases, the original diagnosis of the patient having a terminal disease later proved to be inaccurate. According to the records, these mis-diagnoses were not uncommon, leading one to suspect they may not have been entirely accidental. And indeed, many patients were not selected according to short life expectancy but were instead chosen by the main criterion which was normal functioning of the major body organs, especially the liver and kidneys. The terminal cases where the patients died soon after the tests, were especially valuable because much useful information could be obtained from an autopsy.
The patients selected generally had life expectancies of ten or more years, but were often described in the medical reports as “hopelessly sick” or “terminal” when they were no such thing. And certainly, some patients were “mis-diagnosed”, those who were suffering from no serious medical condition but were termed terminal anyway. It is a valid question whether those mis-diagnoses were accidental or deliberate, since it is not easy to determine a terminal illness where no illness exists. The media literature glosses over this a bit too quickly, claiming judgments about life expectancy are difficult to make even today. If these determinations are so difficult to make “even today”, then they were much more difficult then, which should have led to more caution rather than less. The researchers surely knew they were guessing. Some patients were admitted for ulcers, then sent into the plutonium injection wards.
The cold-blooded callousness sometimes exhibited, staggers the mind and the senses. In one case where a patient was mis-diagnosed and found to have a benign tumor rather than a malignant cancer, and would therefore leave the hospital and end his testing, the authorities schemed for ways to keep him in the study by paying for his stay in a convalescent home or even offering him a part-time job in the hospital as a way to continue injecting him with radiation. In this successful case, the doctor wrote, “His sister was a nurse and he was very suspicious of me, but to my knowledge he never found out.”
It was interesting that in 1995, the US Department of Energy (i.e., the US Nuclear Department) published a “Roadmap of Human Radiation Experiments” that summarised almost 500 experiments it had conducted over several decades by exposing unwitting American citizens to unlimited amounts of nuclear radiation, the so-called ‘roadmap’ in turn citing a 1986 Congressional report titled, “American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens”. Both essentially described “Experiments on individuals involving intentional exposure to ionizing radiation”, with the added feature of the deliberate intention to “test the extent of human exposure to radiation”, i.e., until death do us part.
Mr. Romanoff’s writing has been translated into 32 languages and his articles posted on more than 150 foreign-language news and politics websites in more than 30 countries, as well as more than 100 English language platforms. Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He is one of the contributing authors to Cynthia McKinney’s new anthology ‘When China Sneezes’. (Chapt. 2 — Dealing with Demons).
His full archive can be seen at
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 US Army Has Admitted To Conducting 100s Of Germ Warfare Tests On Americans – image source
 Secret Government Experiments On The American People
 Over and over again, the military has conducted dangerous biowarfare experiments on Americans
 Governments and Biowarfare: A Brief History
 In the Name of Science: A History of Secret Programs, Medical Research, and Human Experimentation
 Andrew Goliszek “In the Name of Science”
 In the Name of Science by Andrew Goliszek
 Hidden history of US germ testing
 Hotel Anthrax
 Human Experimentation An Overview on Co1d War Era Programs
1994: Senate VA Committee Hearing: Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans’ Health?
 IS MILITARY RESEARCH HAZARDOUS TO VETERANS’ HEALTH? LESSONS SPANNING HALF A CENTURY
 1947: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission begins radioactive experiments on human subjects
 1947 AEC Memo Reveals Why Human Radiation Experiments Were Censored
 Hornblum Allen M.; Newman Judith Lynn; Dober Gregory J. (2013). Against Their Will: The Secret History of Medical Experimentation on Children in Cold War America. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-34171-5)
 Project 112
 Operation Dew
 Operation LAC
 Project SHAD
 Operation Dew
 America’s own-goal nuclear holocaust: How hundred above-ground Nevada A-bomb tests during the 1950s exposed MILLIONS to ‘tremendous’ amounts of radiation and may have killed up to 695,000. Research suggests the total number of excess deaths was ‘comparable to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The U.S. has detonated more than 1,000 bombs, killing more than 2 million of its own people — and for what?
 Operation Plumbbob
 Ernest J. Sternglass
 Dugway’s secret tests: Vets link health problems to chemical exposure
 The Marshall Islands: U.S. Nuclear Testing of the 1950’s
 D. Zak, “A Ground Zero Forgotten,” Washington Post, 27 Nov 15.
 America’s Worst Nuclear Disaster Was in California. Who Knew?
 The Story of the Borax Nuclear Reactor and the EBR-I Meltdown